The Eastern, or Great, Rift Valley extends from the Red Sea’s junction with the Gulf of Aden southward across the highlands of Ethiopia and Kenya and continues on into Tanzania.
The Horn of Africa, a major peninsular extension of the African mainland into the Arabian Sea, contains the vast lowland coastal plains of Somalia.
The climate of eastern Africa is generally tropical, though average temperatures tend to be reduced by the region’s high elevations.
Most of the peoples of Eritrea and Ethiopia—and some of those in Tanzania and Kenya—speak languages belonging to the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
Speakers of Nilo-Saharan languages populate Uganda and the rift valley portions of Kenya and Tanzania, while speakers of Bantu languages constitute much of the remainder of these countries’ population.
Between the two rift valleys lies a plateau that comprises most of Uganda and western Tanzania and includes Lake Victoria.
The volcanic massif of Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa, reaches 19,340 feet (5,895 metres) in northeastern Tanzania.Aromatic gums, tortoiseshell, ivory, and slaves were traded in return.Arab traders from about 700 seem to have preferred the East African coast to the south of modern Somalia.Eastern Africa, part of sub-Saharan Africa comprising two traditionally recognized regions: East Africa, made up of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda; and the Horn of Africa, made up of Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia.Eastern Africa consists largely of plateaus and has most of the highest elevations in the continent.They sailed there with the northeast monsoon, returning home in the summer with the southwest.