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Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century.
During the Heian period (794–1185), Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese.
Following the end in 1853 of Japan's self-imposed isolation, the flow of loanwords from European languages increased significantly.
English loanwords, in particular, have become frequent, and Japanese words from English roots have proliferated.
Some of these Chinese texts show the influences of Japanese grammar, such as the word order (for example, placing the verb after the object).
In these hybrid texts, Chinese characters are also occasionally used phonetically to represent Japanese particles.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 126 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan) language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated.
However, it is not fully certain that the alternation between syllables necessarily reflects a difference in the vowels rather than the consonants – at the moment, the only undisputed fact is that they are different syllables.