Judging people on the basis of attractiveness decreases a person's self-esteem leading to a negative self-image.
Furthermore, the symbolic dimension, which includes sports, media, current affairs, etc.
has "disseminate[d] a wealth of popular iconography which links Western masculinities to the wider world beyond the borders of the state".
The authors also argue that if physical attractiveness can improve a company's success, then awarding people for it is justifiable, as the trait is thus relevant to the job and discrimination only occurs when irrelevant traits are used.
In addition, the authors question the practicality of both redressing any injustices based on lookism and of determining whether such injustices have in fact occurred.
Important economic considerations include the question of income gaps based on looks, as well as increased or decreased productivity from workers considered beautiful or ugly by their co-workers.
Due to this, new problems arise that are tied to other social issues like racism and ageism (young over old).
In this sense it is not unlike racism or sexism or homophobia itself. Tietje and Cresap quote evidence that suggests there exists "a 7–to–9 percent 'penalty' for being in the lowest 9 percent of looks among all workers, and a 5 percent 'premium' for being in the top 33 percent".
While accepting that the evidence indicates that such discrimination does occur, the authors argue that it has been pervasive throughout history and that judgments of aesthetics appear to be a biological adaptation (rather than culturally conditioned) to aid reproduction, survival and social interaction, allowing people to determine viable mates (level of attractiveness being indicative of health) and the status of others as "friend or enemy, threat or opportunity".
It was used in The Washington Post Magazine in 1978, which asserted that the term was coined by "fat people" who created the word to refer to "discrimination based on looks." Lookism has received scholarly attention both from a cultural studies and an economics perspective.
In the former context, lookism relates to preconceived notions of beauty and cultural stereotyping based on appearance as well as gender roles and expectations.
Thus the authors conclude that there can be no clear model of injustice in such discrimination, nor would legislation to address it be practicable - "We do not see how any policy interventions to redress beauty discrimination can be justified." In the 1960 Presidential race between John F.