As part of British India, the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance and played an important role in anti-colonial movements.
Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region.
By the 11th century people lived in systemically-aligned housing, buried their dead, and manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery.
Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous country.
Dhaka is its capital and largest city, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port.
Nepal, Bhutan and China are located near Bangladesh but do not share a border with it.
The country's maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is roughly equal to the size of its land area.
It is one of the largest textile exporters in the world.
Its major trading partners are the European Union, the United States, China, India, Japan, Malaysia and Singapore.
Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which enjoyed international trade links for millennia.